Kukhumudwa  kwakukulu (en. Major Depression)

Kukhumudwa kwakukulu (en. Major Depression)

Matenda a kukhumudwa kwakulu (en. Major depression) ndichiyani?

Kukhumudwa kwakukulu, mwachidule, kukhumudwa ndi matenda a kusokonezeka kwamaganizo amene amadziwika ndi kukhala okhumudwa pafupifupi tsiku lililonse kwa masabata osachepra awiri, malingana ndi DSM-5 — buku lomwe limagwiritsidwa ntchito poyesa matenda a kusokonezekwa ka magwiridwe a ntchito ya ubongo.

Malingana ndi kafukufuku m’modzi amene anachitika m’dziko la Malawi, mwa anthu zana (100) lililonse, anthu pafupifupi makumi atatu (28.8) amene amapita kuzipatal zing’onozing’ono, amadwala matendawa 1.

Zizindikiro (Symptoms)

Zizindikiro za matendawa ndi izi:

  • Kukhala okhumudwa pafupifupi tsiku linalililose kwa masabata awiri kapena opitilira
  • Kukhala osasangalala ndi zinthu zomwe mumakonda kuchita nthawi zonse
  • Kukhala ofooka kapena kutopa nthawi zonse
  • Kuvutika kugona
  • Kukhala opanda chilakolako chachakudya ndi kuonda kwa thupi (kuchepa kwa magawo asanu(5) azana (100) limodzi, 5%, a kulemera kwa thupi pa mwezi (month) umodzi)
  • Kukhala ndi maganizo oti munalakwitsa china chake kapena kumaziona nati ndinu munthu osafunika
  • Kumaziona kuti mulibe tsogolo
  • Kumaziona kuti kulibwino mutangofa ndi kukhala ndimaganizo ofuna kudzipha
  • Kumalephera kuika maganizo pa chinthu (kuika tcheru) ndi kulingalira

Zimene zimayambitsa kukhumudwa (Causes)

Matendawa amayamba pazifukwa zosiyanasiyana. Nthawi zina amayamba chifukwa choti m’banja mwanu alipo amene anadwalapo/kutengera (genetics), kukhala ndi matenda okhazikika (chronic illness), kukhala ndi mavuto a umphawi ndipo nthawi zina choyambitsa sichidziwika.

Mitundu ya kukhumudwa kwakukulu  (Types of depression)

Matendawa ali ndi mitundu ingapo.

  1. Kukhumudwa kokhala ndi kugawanika/kubalalika/misala (psychotic depression) kawirikawiri kumayamba ndi marubwerubwe/kubwebweta (hallucinations) kukhulupilira zinthu zoti ndizabodza ndipo sizenizeni (delusions).
  2. Kukhumudwa kuyamba mzimayi akangobereka kumene (postpartum depression) kumayamba chifukwa cha kusintha kwamthupi kapena kupanikizidwa ndi chisamaliro cha mwana ndiponso kusintha kwamthupi ndi thupi kumene kumakhudza maganizo.
  3. Kukhumudwa kokhala ndi chisoni popanda chifukwa chenicheni (Melancholic depression) kumakhala ndi zizindikiro za kuonda ndi kusakhala ndi chidwi pazinthu zomwe mumakonda kale. Kukhumudwa kwake kumafana ndi m’mene mumamvera mukataya okondedwa wanu. Nthawi zambiri kumagwirizana ndi maganizo ndiponso kucheza ndi anzanu. Zizindikiro zina ndi kugona mopitiliza muyezo, kumva kulemera mikono ndi miyendo, ndi kukhala ndi nkhawa pagulu.
  4. Ngati muli ndi kukhumudwa kopangitsa kuuma kwa thupi (Catatonic depression), mumakhala ovutika kogwiritsa ntchito thupi (motor difficulties) ndi machitidwe zochita (behaviour). Mukhoza kukhala malo amodzi kwanthawi yayitali osasuntha. Chisamaliro chanu chimayenera kuchitidwa ndi ena.
  5. Kukhumudwa koyendera nyengo (Seasonal affective disorder or SAD) kumayamba chifukwa cha nyengo yozizira/chisanu (winter) kumadera amene kuwala kwa dzuwa kumakhala kochepa kapena kulibe kumene.

Thandizo  (Treatment)

Pali njira zosiyanasiyana zothandizira anthu amena ali matenda a kukhumudadwa. Thandizo lochiritsa mavuto a m’bongo pokambirana zovutazo (psychotherapy), mankhwala oletsa kukhumudwa (antidepressants), thandizo la magetsi opangitsa chifufu (electroconvulsive therapy) ndi mathandizo awena amene amathetsa kukhumudwa kwakukulu. Thandizo logwirita magetsi siligwiritsidwa ntchito kawirikawiri, pokhapokha ngati matendawa avuta kwambiri.

Ngati mwaona kuti muli ndi zizindikiro zatchulidwa apazi, kapena wokondedwa wanu alinazo, kayankhuleni ndi ogwira ntchito zaudotolo amene amene amadziwa bwino za matendawa.

Chifaniziro chaumboni (Reference)

  1. Kauye, F., et al. (2014). “Training primary health care workers in mental health and its impact on diagnoses of common mental disorders in primary care of a developing country, Malawi: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.” Psychological medicine 44(03): 657-666.

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